All posts by waynespencer

Why I still believe

I have recently passed the “milestone” of having been a Christian for forty years and I still believe. If you asked the question, “Why did I become a Christian?” that has mysterious aspects. The process of becoming a Christian is where we run into the mysteries of God’s sovereignty and man’s responsibility. I think that without God’s acting in someone’s life, they would not believe. But it is not that God forces the person to believe. It really is their real choice, but somehow God helps a person get over the spiritual handicap they were born with, so they can believe. I wrote a blog post about coming to faith in November of 2018, called “The Road To Faith.” I explained how I see the role of reason in believing in God. There is a relational side of the issue of believing in God, and a mental or rational side of it. In becoming a Christian, I think the relational side actually is more important to most people than the rational side. But this varies with each person. On our “road to faith” we put blocks on our own path because we want something to stop us from believing. But just because you have an unanswered question that your reason cannot answer, this does not in and of itself make it a roadblock. It only becomes a roadblock when you decide it’s a roadblock. To make an unanswered question a roadblock we sort of give that question a special status. So if an unanswered question has been vested with the status of being a roadblock to faith, then we must decide how to respond to it. Will we find an answer that allows us to remove the obstacle, or will we go around it, try to jump over it, or give up and go backwards?

So the road to faith is not entirely a rational process, but that doesn’t mean there are no reasons for faith. Having genuine questions is not a sin in and of itself. Questions about why we should believe do need answers. But having answers is often not enough in and of itself to satisfy us. There are some who seem to give up on faith along the way, after years of believing, as they describe it. I’m not addressing explaining that situation. People like that become ambiguous cases. I haven’t been one of those cases. It is common for some Christians to struggle at certain times in their lives over the question of are they really a Christian? I have never struggled with that question in the forty years I’ve been a Christian. But that does not mean my faith hasn’t wavered or weakened at times. In living the Christian life, there is still a relational aspect and a rational aspect. God certainly has an active role in the path taken by a believer. In fact, without God leading and sustaining a Christian, any Christian could fall into doubt and trouble. So I have to thank God for a good 40 years, though they were far from being easy years. I do think it is over time that the rational side becomes most relevant in a way. If I have a bad day where I do something I regret, that does not have to make me question that I am a Christian. But it could make me question something in the Bible or something I’ve been taught by believers.

Why have I not given up on faith after all the challenges and difficulties? This question is something where I would have to first thank God that I have not given up on faith, but I may not fully understand how God has been involved. I believe he has been involved from my experience. There have been many times where Christian friends were supportive in ways that was vital to me also. I’ve been very fortunate to have some wonderful long term friendships. We all need a combination of support from others, the will to persevere, and reasons to persevere. I try to understand everything in life from the Biblical perspective. I find this always leads me in the right direction, as long as I am understanding Scripture correctly. So with all this said, I will proceed with summarizing some reasons why I still believe as a Christian, after forty years. Reasons to believe are there when your feelings fail you. So the reasons for faith I’ve learned about have helped me to “keep my balance” you could say.

1. The uniqueness, authority, and trustworthiness of the Bible

Much can be said about this, but I will only say a little here. Nothing compares to the Bible. It is amazing how 40 authors from different times in history, different walks of life, and different levels of education wrote the Bible and yet it has one coherent consistent message throughout. The way it has been instrumental in the lives of many people throughout history is another good argument for it. People who don’t know much about the Bible may bring up the question of how can you trust it, and believe that there are no copying errors. But this kind of statement shows ignorance of how the Bible came to us. It’s not that there are no copying errors. It’s that we have so many manuscripts to compare to that it is pretty straightforward to show when you have a copying error. The Old Testament was copied by use of extreme methods to ensure accuracy and again there are manuscripts from different times in history to compare. The New Testament was copied so much we have many manuscripts from different times in history. So copying errors are not an issue. There are other good reasons to say that we can trust the text of the Bible when you compare it to other ancient literature. The New Testament was written down pretty close to the time of the original events. This is not true of much ancient literature we have. The Bible’s “story” is also in the context of history. This means it does relate to history and many historical details have been verified. Many religions in the world don’t really depend on historical documents like the Bible does, other than perhaps the history surrounding the life of the founder of the religion.

2. The Evidence for Jesus’ Resurrection

The resurrection is critical to Christianity. One of the most important arguments for the resurrection revolves around how skilled the Romans were at it. The Romans did many crucifixions and they had it down to a very refined diabolical process. The Romans could not produce the body and they could not prove someone else took the body. There are many things that point to a real miracle at the resurrection, such as who moved the large stone, or why did Pilate allow a false story to be told? The various attempts to explain away the resurrection are pretty flimsy when you dig into them. There are also several well established facts that are well attested historically about Jesus’ death and resurrection. There’s no question Jesus died by crucifixion, the Bible’s description of it is medically accurate. It was not feasible for the disciples to steal the body because of how the posting of a guard was done by the Romans. A Roman “Guard” usually meant at least 4 men, and in the case of Christ’s burial, it could have meant some larger multiple of 4. So I would say no one has ever had a realistic alternative explanation for the resurrection. The best a skeptic could say would be that it is a mystery what happened.

3. The many changed lives which are all based on the same truths from the New Testament

This is still one of the best arguments for Christianity. Some would bring up “other religions” and say following any religion might lead positive changes in a person’s life, so what makes this evidence of Christianity? I would say that if someone thinks any belief can lead to the changes Christians have experienced, then they don’t understand. There are a lot of people that have tried other beliefs, various religions, before becoming a Christian. They are not equivalent. They describe those as being partial answers but not the real thing. In fact, this is being generous. In many cases, the experiences people have with various non-christian religions are painful stories of abuse, corrupt or harsh leaders, or other tragedies. To try out various religions is a frustrating negative experience for many. There are certain common values in various religions and the accountability to others in that group can have some positive influence. But if it is not based on a Biblical faith in Christ, it ends up becoming outward rules and not a complete change from the inside out. Living the Christian life means that as you learn about God and live as the Bible says, God changes you from the inside. In experiencing this as a Christian, you find that though God’s way of living may not always be what you originally wanted, it does turn out to be what is best for you. The way the Bible says we should live is not arbitrary harsh rules. It is the way we were designed to live. Christ has changed the lives of all kinds of people, from all languages, of all skin colors, education levels, and any kind of family background. If you want to compare the changes in lives of people of other faiths, I think they don’t really compare because they become unsatisfying one way or another. Biblical Christianity satisfies in explaining how we experience life as well as answering the big philosophical questions about the world and the universe. But you cannot experience this without really living a life of obedience to God. Some don’t experience this because they aren’t living by Biblical principles. Sometimes skeptics of Christianity have become turned off to faith in God because of a Christian they knew who let them down or who failed in some way. But you can’t judge if Christianity is true by considering only a person who is a bad example. The evidence for the truth of Christianity exists even apart from whether Christians know it or not.

4. Historically fulfilled prophesy

There are a lot of examples of events or people described in Scripture well before the events happened, then in history it happened in a manner that agrees with Scripture. First, there were prophesies about Jesus’ birth from long before the events happened, such as that he would be “born of a virgin” from Isaiah 7:14. Also that he would be of the Tribe of Judah in Israel, from Genesis 49:10 (written in the time of Moses). Then there was Micah 5:2, which mentions that the Ruler of Israel would come out of Bethlehem. Then there are other Old Testament prophesies of significant historical facts, years before they happened. I wrote about these in an article called “Why Believe the Bible, Part 2” on CreationAnswers.Net in the Christianity section. A notable example is in Isaiah 44:28 the prophet Isaiah mentions a king named Cyrus who would one day give the order to send the Jews back to Jerusalem to rebuild the temple and the city. This was written roughly 80 or 100 years before Cyrus was born; this was the Persian king known as “Cyrus the Great.” Mentioned by name years before he was born and before the Persians were in power! Then there are the prophecies of the prophet Daniel while he was in exile in Babylon. He predicted a number of details about great kingdoms of the world that would come to power after his lifetime. Some of these details are remarkable predictions about Alexander the Great, who conquered Persia. Daniel 11:4 describes what will happen after the rule of a powerful king (Alexander the Great). It says “his kingdom will be broken up and parceled out toward the four points of the compass, though not to his own descendents, nor according to his authority which he wielded, for his sovereignty will be uprooted and given to others besides them.” (NASB) This is a remarkable prediction. For an explanation of how this was worked out, see my “Why Believe the Bible, Part 2” article.

5. The historicity of the Old and New Testaments

Both the Old and New Testaments tell about what God did through history. Thus Christianity depends on historical events. Miracles described in the past in Scripture may not be something that can be confirmed by historical or archeological evidence. But there are many people, places, and events that have been confirmed by archeological and historical sources. This is true for both the Old and the New Testaments. On the other hand, there are questions where there is not a clear consensus on how the Biblical account relates to the history. We may not know the location of every city or town mentioned in the Bible, for example, but we know the location of many of them. Christian faith is supported by multiple types of categories of evidence, as I am trying to overview here. So if scholars get some particular question about archeology wrong regarding the Bible it need not shake my faith. Over time, more and more discoveries from archeology have confirmed the Bible.

The historicity of the Bible for the Old Testament goes back to the time of Abraham as described in Genesis and it also encompasses many details in the New Testament. There were manners and customs regarding marriage and how agreements were made between people from the time of Abraham that have been confirmed from ancient writings from the time of Abraham. The New Testament has many references to people, places, coins, and Roman officials in the four gospels that have been found to be accurate about the first century from historical sources. Many places in and around Jerusalem mentioned in the gospels have been confirmed to exist by archeologists. The gospel writer Luke, who wrote the books of Luke and Acts has been found particularly careful in his description of Roman officials, places, and events. Luke’s writings are very helpful in dating events surrounding the ministry and crucifixion of Christ. So information like this is confirmable by historical and archeological discoveries. This doesn’t in itself confirm everything the Bible says, but if it is right on the confirmable details like people, places, events, and other historical facts, then we should not dismiss it. The Bible tells a great story of how God worked to save mankind through history. So, it is worth reading.

6. The attempts to keep people from reading the Bible

If the Bible were not true, why would so many governments and other powerful organizations throughout history work to destroy it, subvert it’s transmission and dissemination, make it illegal, and generally persecute people who believe it? No one has been able to eliminate the Bible or stop its influence or stop the spread of its message around the world. Many times the lives of some believers have been made miserable by people who persecute Christians. This happens today as well. The efforts to subvert the Bible or prevent distribution of it, coupled with the lengths people will go to to obtain a Bible, shows the truth of it. The efforts to subvert or prevent access to the Bible tend to expose corruption and deception from various leaders. Often making the Bible illegal makes people more curious about it. It makes people want to find out why it should be restricted!

7. The evidence from science that confirms the Bible

Science confirms the truth of the Bible. But this does not mean the Bible gives scientific detail, it doesn’t. But as God’s word, the Bible is authoritative on everything it addresses. Thus to understand how the Bible and science agree, it is necessary to learn how to interpret the Bible correctly and also learn how to interpret the facts of science correctly. There are sometimes some scientific questions we don’t have complete answers to. But there are so many things where science does agree with the Bible that no one should really consider science to be an obstacle to faith. I can understand that science can seem to be such an obstacle, but from years of looking into how science and the Bible relate, I’m thoroughly convinced science is no obstacle. There is now much documented evidence for intelligent design in the way things are made, such as in the properties of the atom or in the information content of the cell. Young age creationists put forward evidence for intelligent design long before there was such a thing as todays “Intelligent Design (ID) Movement.” The “ID” movement produces some very good materials and has generally been a good thing but it does not specifically point people to the truth of the Bible. For my creation writings and ministry I’ve never been satisfied with leaving it at evidence for some unnamed intelligence. I think we can point to evidence showing how the Bible and science agree and the science points specifically to the Bible and not to other beliefs.

Some examples of things in the Bible that are supported by science:

  • Ceremonial washings and isolation of people with diseases in ancient Israel laid down some practices that were very healthy for preventing the spread of disease in the community. This was in the Law of Moses long before there was medical knowledge to motivate it. It was put in the context of God’s laws for Israel but it still had health benefits. (See Leviticus 13 for example.)
  • Solomon wrote about the hydrologic water cycle in Ecclesiastes 1:7. This was a very astute observation for someone of his time. Isaiah 55:10-11 also alludes to it.
  • Job 26:7 says God suspends the Earth over nothing. An accurate statement from very ancient times.
  • Genesis chapters 6-8 describe God’s judgement of the Earth in the global Flood of Noah’s day. Jesus reaffirms it in the gospels and the Apostle Peter also mentions it in 2 Peter 3. Scientific evidence for a global Flood that covered the Earth and formed great layers of rock and many many fossils of living things has been documented by creationists. (See this blog article on some of this Flood evidence.)
  • Jeremiah 33:25 alludes to God setting down fixed laws of heaven and Earth.
  • Genesis chapter 1 describes living things reproducing “after their kind.” This is realistic in that it allows for limited adaptation to the environment but implies basic types of organisms that cannot change from one to the other. This is a realistic description based on modern biology and genetics.
  • The Bible implies that dinosaurs lived from the time of creation only thousands of years ago, then they died later. The soft tissue and unmineralized stretchy organic material found in fossils today supports this from science. I have a short handout about this.

Galaxies

In Proverbs 25:2, it says “It is the glory of God to conceal a matter; to search out a matter is the glory of kings (NIV84).” We like to think we can figure out the universe. Sometimes I wonder if God is sitting back laughing at how little we understand about what He made. Today’s technology used in astronomy research is truly amazing. For example, some researchers in Spain recently used a new satellite called Gaia to do what you could call an actual measurement that seems to show our galaxy, the Milky Way, is a Barred Spiral in its shape. Click here to read about this. We can obtain all sorts of pictures of objects in space. Computers can simulate cataclysmic events in space like galaxies colliding and watch what happens. We can figure out the distances to the stars, what they’re made of, how they are clustered together, and the speed and direction of their motion. There are always limits to how precise we can be, but there is a bigger limitation in how we figure out things in astronomy. We should be mindful of how limited we are as human beings. We weren’t there at the beginning of the universe. So there is much we haven’t actually seen because we weren’t there in the past. We don’t have a video of what was happening at the beginning of the universe. Also, there is a lot of assumptions and interpretation that goes into inferring what happened in the past, based on what we see and measure in the present.

Galaxies were an unexpected thing in the early days of science. Johannes Kepler and Tycho Brahe never imagined galaxies in the early 1600’s. Telescopes had to improve for a long time before people figured out that galaxies were actually gigantic collections of stars. Our galaxy was called the Milky Way long before anyone knew what it was. For many years people thought it was a nebula, a cloud in space. So mankind’s understanding of galaxies has come a long way. Even just a few years ago, scientists estimated the number of stars in our galaxy to be something like one half to one fourth the number scientists believe today. Today estimates run in the range of 200 to 400 billion stars just in our own galaxy. Galaxies represent a surprising level of organization of stars in the universe. Scientists still debate a fundamental chicken and egg question about galaxies. Which came first, the stars or the galaxies that the stars are within. In other words, do galaxies form from the top-down or from the bottom-up? The current leading answer to this is the bottom-up approach. Scientists today would say stars formed first and then stars clustered together, clusters grew into galaxies, and eventually galaxies merged together to form bigger galaxies.

Galaxies come in many shapes, sizes, and colors. There are spiral galaxies, elliptical galaxies, and others that are just called “irregular” in shape. Our galaxy is a special kind of spiral galaxy called a Barred Spiral because there is what looks like a straight strip of stars that goes through the center of our galaxy’s central bulge. Then from the ends of the straight strip, the galaxy has spiral arms like other spiral galaxies. Many galaxies are of odd shapes and there are pairs or groups of galaxies that are near each other or they may even blend together. Galaxies have a lot empty space, so they can pass right through each other. But, if they do this, it can generate fireworks and they distort each other’s shapes. Scientists tend to judge the age of a galaxy from the color of the stars that predominate in it and from the question of how much dust is in it. White and blue stars are assumed to be younger and yellow and red stars are assumed to be billions of years older. I would say these differences are more about how they were created, not their age. Also if a galaxy is very large, it is thought to be older as well. Scientists believe galaxies have collided and merged together and this is how galaxies grow over billions of years.

How do galaxies relate to the Big Bang?
Actually the Big Bang theory does nothing to explain how galaxies actually form. But the models scientists have for galaxy formation are like an addon to Big Bang models. Some scientists would say that it could take 3 to 6 billion years for large galaxies like we often see today to form. This also implies that the early universe not long after the Big Bang should have mostly small galaxies, not big ones that look like today’s galaxies. But this has not been what scientists have discovered as they get better telescopes that peer farther and farther out into the universe. The formation of galaxies is a tough problem if you leave out a Creator-God. Even more so, the formation of large superclusters of clusters of galaxies is an even tougher problem. (See the article and podcast about ‘Things too big for the Big Bang.’)

In 1988 a well known physicist, James Trefil, made this statement about galaxies and the Big Bang:

“It has always been difficult for astronomers to explain why stars are clumped into galaxies instead of being spread out more uniformly in space… There shouldn’t be galaxies out there at all, and even if there are galaxies, they shouldn’t be grouped together the way they are….
The problem of explaining the existence of galaxies has proved to be one of the thorniest in cosmology. By all rights, they just shouldn’t be there, yet there they sit. It’s hard to convey the depth of the frustration that this simple fact induces among scientists.”

So since 1988 scientists have worked on the problem some. But occasionally scientists still comment about the questions of the formation and evolution of galaxies being an unsolved problem. In an article in the journal Nature from 2004, several scientists said this:

“Nearly a century after the true nature of galaxies … was established, their origin and evolution remain great unsolved problems of modern astrophysics.”

There are some very technical aspects of galaxy formation that researchers have spent time and effort on. But I don’t think astronomers have a good handle on galaxy formation because there are so many layers of assumptions that sort of ‘cloud’ the issues. One of those issues is the topic of dark matter.

What is dark matter?
Dark matter is believed by astronomers and physicists to be some form of exotic particles that don’t interact much with normal matter. It is thought to be very hard to detect because it doesn’t interact with light or normal matter much. Not all physicists and astronomers believe in dark matter, but most do. Dark matter is used in many computer simulations and in cosmology calculations, and it is assumed to make up most of the mass of most galaxies. But there is one big problem with dark matter. Particle physicists can’t find observational evidence for it. There have been a number of proposed exotic forms of matter that physicists suggested but these theories so far have no clear evidence. What is the evidence for dark matter? The primary argument for it has been the velocities of stars in galaxies.

In our solar system, the planet orbits follow a predictable mathematical law discovered by Johannes Kepler that tells us how the velocity of a planet along it’s orbit decreases the farther away from the Sun the planet is. Planets, moons, asteroids, and other objects in our solar system follow Kepler’s laws of orbital motion beautifully. But the stars in a spiral galaxy don’t quite follow the same pattern. If you measured the speed of stars moving in the plane of a spiral galaxy, and compare these speeds going from the inner part near the galaxy center outward toward the edge, a funny thing happens. The star velocity is nearly constant for a long way moving outward from the center of the galaxy. But as you get beyond a certain distance, the velocities of the stars increase. This brings up a problem because if the galaxy is billions of years old, why are the outer stars still there? The galaxy would come apart over time. Also, in spiral galaxies the spiral arms tend to “wrap up on themselves” over time. So I think this suggests they could be much younger than most astronomers think.

Scientists debate the possible explanations of the galaxy star velocities to this day. But the answer most astronomers believe is that there is dark matter that makes up a large part of the mass of the galaxy, though we can’t detect it. So this dark matter would be distributed in and around the galaxy in a way that is different than the stars we see, so it is thought to explain the odd motion of the outer stars. I think the assumption that the galaxies are billions of years old is wrong. But if there were real evidence for detecting dark matter so that we knew what kind of particles it was, I could perhaps be persuaded. But without that, I’m skeptical. There have been some cases of galaxies that have been claimed to be evidence of dark matter, but I don’t buy those claims because there have been critics of those cases and I think there are other ways to interpret the evidence. I’m also skeptical when scientists say that maybe 90% of the mass of a galaxy is dark matter and only 10% is normal matter we can detect or see. This is not believable to me. It’s interpreting what we see incorrectly somehow. Most of the matter must be in the stars. Certainly there could be exotic forms of matter we don’t know of, but it seems to me that modern science makes way too much out of dark matter when we can’t even detect it or explain what it is. To read a couple of good articles about the lack of evidence for dark matter, click here and here. If you want to try a very interesting Goggle search, try searching for “Dark matter doesn’t exist.” There are many videos and articles saying this and they are from intelligent people including some astronomers.

There are some very strange and interesting looking galaxies. Many of them look like two or more galaxies have collided or have come close to each other and have distorted each other. Creationists have some differing opinions about these galaxies. I would lean toward the view that they were created essentially as we see them. But I think we should not get so hung up on the scientific questions they raise that we can’t just sit back and say “Wow! God made this!” There are many mysteries about the universe we haven’t figured out yet. There is nothing too large in the universe for God to be able to control it. Also, it may be at least as important that we can sit back and enjoy the beauty of the universe as it is that we understand it. In fact, we really should think of God as like an artist when we see pictures of galaxies and nebulas in space. Sometimes God created things very orderly and sometimes he seems to have created with a bit of chaos or with what you might call “artistic flourish.” A human artist painting on a small canvas may flick his wrist and create a splash or curve of color on the canvas. But God’s canvas was the universe. With a “flick of his wrist” He could spread stars across a million light-years!

Below are some links to some interesting galaxies:

MACS J0717
Considered a galaxy cluster. This cluster is thought to have formed from the collision of four other galaxies. But no one has actually seen such a collision, it is inferred by scientists. The image below combines a picture from the Hubble Space Telescope to show the white galaxies with an X-Ray image from the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. The blue color shows gas of the highest temperature, with purple showing lower temperatures.
https://hubblesite.org/image/2539/gallery

i-Zwicky-18
Considered a dwarf irregular galaxy. It is also called a starburst galaxy. It is much smaller than our galaxy, the Milky Way, at only 3,000 light-years in diameter. Scientists generally judge the age of a galaxy by the color of the stars in it. Bright white and blue stars are thought to be young. But yellow stars are older. This galaxy has a mix of both young and old stars, by this way of thinking. The yellowish nearby galaxies would be considered old. But how do we know that star color is an indication of age? If this galaxy is old, it is a mystery why it is so blue. The blue color is believed to indicate star formation. Thus scientists debate what would cause so much star formation.
https://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap071017.html

The Antennae Galaxies
This is thought to come from a collision and merger of two spiral galaxies hundreds of millions of years ago. These two galaxies have designations NGC 4038 and NGC 4039. But what if God just made it this way? It is wild but beautiful. To me, it looks like a bent over tadpole with lights.
https://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/imagegallery/image_feature_1086.html

The Milky Way
What about our own galaxy – the Milky Way? Here are some numbers on our Sun’s motion orbiting the center of the galaxy, and the Milky Way’s motion through space. You may think you’re sitting still to read this, but you’re not. Our Sun orbits the center of the Milky Way (a barred spiral) about 26,000 Light-Years (LY) from the center. This means our Sun is moving in a circular orbit at around 225 kilometers (km) per second (or 140 miles per second) around the galaxy. Earth orbits the Sun while the Sun orbits the galaxy. Our galaxy is also moving at a speed of 552 km per second (343 miles per second) with a ‘local’ group of galaxies. Our galaxy is also in a collision course with the Andromeda galaxy. But they wouldn’t collide for billions of years. Since everything is in motion in this way, think of what God must have done when he created Earth before the Sun, Moon, and stars. I would guess he created the Earth already in its motion first then put the Sun, Moon, stars and the galaxy in place already in motion as they were created on the fourth day. This is a mind-boggling dynamics problem. This way Earth would not undergo massive geological forces from being accelerated into motion. Of course, God could solve these kind of problems however he wanted. This is only my speculation. After all, I wasn’t there.

We are placed at a good spot in our galaxy for observing the rest of the universe. If we were in or near the central bulge of the galaxy, there would be too much scattered light from dust and gas for us to see out beyond our own galaxy. But since we lie in a region between two spiral arms, it’s a good spot for seeing the universe. In the center of our galaxy is a supermassive black hole, called Sagittarius A. Sagittarius A contains the mass of about 4.3 million Suns. Black holes are strange but very real. The observational evidence for them is very good. The central black hole seems to act like a kind of anchor for the galaxy. There is one other thing about our galaxy that is a bit unusual, it has two satellites orbiting it. These are called the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, but they are actually considered dwarf irregular galaxies. These can’t be seen from the Earth’s Northern Hemisphere.

I think we should think of God as an artist when we think of the variety of wonders out in space. Young age creationists have multiple ways of understanding what we see in space. Some would take the view that God created things pretty much as we see them and they have not had time to change much since the beginning. Others would argue that during the creation week there could have been some acceleration of processes, or time dilation, that made things happen very rapidly on the fourth day of creation week. I tend to take the first view. I think we cannot tell if the universe is young or old by just looking at it. But the Bible does imply the universe is only thousands of years old. There are some interesting scientific puzzles to unravel yet regarding this but I will always side with the Bible.


Image of galaxy UGC 12158 (NASA/ESA). This is a Barred Spiral, thought to be similar to our own galaxy, the Milky Way.